All materials must be returned by the last date stamped on the card. Form #0692 THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB EDITED BY G. In the lack of Miss Ballou's text I nave been forced to base this edition, from the Commodus Vll PREFACE onward, on the text of Hermann Peter, for the long- promised edition by Dr. The suggestions offered bv various scholars O - v * since the appearance of Peter's second edition have been carefully considered, and a few have been adopted.
All the more important variations from P, as well as the most significant of the variant readings O afforded by the later correctors of the manuscript, and, in ad'ditiou, the divergencies from the text of Peter have been entered in the critical notes.
In the Introduction I have sought to give a brief account of the Historia Augusta, the authors, their method and style, and a summary of the study ex- pended on it from the close of the classical period to the present and its use by later historians. xxi INTRODUCTION introduced by editors of the whole series, and of notes added by commentators, presumably on the margins, and subsequently incorporated in the body of the work. Eutropius' material is generally supposed to have been taken from an extensive history of the empire, now lost, which is usually termed the "Imperial Chronicle" (Kaiserchronik) ; see A.
A dis- cussion of its authorship an.l sources and of the theories which have found in it a work of the late fourth or early fifth century has, for reasons of space, been reserved for the second volume. xix INTRODUCTION to the people or the senate, and 20 senatorial decrees and acclamations. 1 Frequently they are inserted with utter disregard to the context, so that the continuity of a passage is completely interrupted. Eumaun, Eine Verlorcne Geschichte der Romischen Kaiser, Philologus, Suppl.
The somewhat voluminous commentary has seemed necessary on account of the obscurity of the narrative and the abundance of technical terms. 1 The distribution of these, how- ever, is by no means uniform. They vary- in size from passages of several pages to brief notes of a few lines.
In the pre- paration of it I have tried to keep in mind not only the needs of the general reader but also those of the student of Roman History, and it is for the benefit of the latter that some of the more technical material has been included. Of the major vitae from Hadrian to Elagabalus inclusive, only the Corn- modus and the Macrinus are provided with "docu- ments," and these have but two apiece. The most extensive is a long passage in the vita of Marcus, which is inserted between the two main portions of the biography.
vin PREFACE A list of the books and articles to which I am in- debted would fill many pages. 2 On the other hand, the group of vitae of the Maximini, the Gordiani, and Maximus and Balbinus contains in all 26 such pieces, and Pollio's Valeriam, Tyranni Triginta and Claudius 3 have together 27. 2 It consists of an epitome of the events of the latter part of his reign, enumerated again and at greater length in the second main portion of the vita. The greatest amount of aid has been furnished by Lessing's Lexicon, Mommsen's Romisches Staatsrecht, the Prosopographia Imperil Romani, and the admirable articles on the various Emperors that have appeared in the Real- Encyclopadie of Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll. It is, however, Vopiscus who heads the list, for his five biographies contain no less than 59 so-called documents of various kinds. That this epitome is an interpolation is evident not only from the double narrative of certain events, but also from the fact that it agrees closely with the narrative of Marcus' reign which is found in Eutropius. In the com- mentary to the biography of Hadrian valuable assistance has been rendered by Wilhelm Weber's Untersuchwigen zur Geschickte des Kaisers Hadrian. In a discussion of the genuineness of these docu- ments a distinction must be drawn between the speeches, on the one hand, and the letters and sena- torial decrees and acclamations on the other. 3 An extensive interpolation has been made also in the Vita Severi. The detailed narrative of the earlier part of Severus' reign 4 is followed by a brief summary of the events of the whole period of his rule, 5 closing with a long address to Diocletian. I I 1 i i i i i i i I I I I 1 I I I i I I i 1 I i 1 LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AUGUSTAE I Translated by DAVID MAGIE I i i I I i i I I I 1 I 1 ! Their names may be fictitious, and their work seems to have been added to by later interpolations. CONTENTS PREFACE vii INTRODUCTION xi EDITORIAL NOTE (1991) xxxviii HADRIAN 3 AELIUS 83 ANTONINUS PIUS 101 MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS 133 LUCIUS VERUS 207 AVIDIUS CASSIUS 233 COMMODUS 265 PERTINAX 315 DIDIUS JULIANUS 349 SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 371 PESCENNIUS NIGER 431 CLODIUS ALBINUS 461 PREFACE IN the preparation of this book others have laboured and I have entered into the fruits of their labours. It, in turn, is followed by a section containing the narration of single incidents, frequently repetitions of what has preceded, forming a loosely composed and ill connected appendix to the whole. L^ 1 n 1 i I i 1 1 1 [o m Complete list of Loeb titles can be found at the end of each volume SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AUGUSTAE (Historia Augusta) A collection of bio- graphies (most of them in chronological order) of Roman emperors and claimants and heirs presumptive and colleagues from Hadrian to Numerianus (A. 117- 284) compiled by six writers (learned men, possibly secretaries or librarians with much knowledge of law) apparently of the period A. Their model is Suetonius, their style plain, their attitude uncritical and courtly but honest, their method the anecdote without care for arrangement or much regard for the importance or the background of general events. Their co-operation has been of inestimable service. 1 Similar additions are to be found in the vita of Caracalla ; 2 they contain repetitions and elaborations of previously narrated incidents and are evidently not the work of the writer of the bulk of the life. xxiii INTRODUCTION later addition of lengthy passages and brief notes, frequently in paragraphs with the general content of which they have no connexion, has put the crowning touch to the awkwardness and incoherence of the whole, with the result that the oft-repeated charge seems almost justified, that these biographies are little more than literary monstrosities. Their considerable historical value depends on their sources. The translation of the biographies from Antoninus Pius to Pescennius Niger and from the Maximini to Maximus and Balbinus inclusive has been furnished by my friend Mr. In the translation of the other lives also his fine taste and literary discrimination have been responsible for many a happy phrase. Besides these longer and more obvious interpolations there are countless others of varying extent, consisting of entries of new material and corrections and comments of later writers. II THE TRADITION OF THE HISTORIA AUGUSTA IN spite of its defects in style, its deliberate falsifica- tions, and the trivial character of much of its con- tent, the Historia Augusta has always been a subject for scholarly research and an important source for the history of the second and third centuries.